Rediscovering C.S. Lewis

Rediscovering C.S. Lewis

The name C.S. Lewis or Chronicles of Narnia immediately brings to mind all of the joy and excitement that comes with Christmas! You see, when I was 12 years old I was allowed to pick out of a special catalog exactly what I Narniawanted for Christmas.  I chose two sets of books, the Chronicles of Narnia, and The Little House on the Prairie. Oh, how excited I was to sit down and read these books that were all my own.  I did not understand the symbolism involved in the books or know anything about the author, but I fell in love with the stories and I loved Aslan. Alister McGrath, in his biography C. S. Lewis: a life – eccentric genius, reluctant prophet, has helped me rediscover C.S. Lewis as so much more than just a children’s literature author.  C.S. Lewis is a man of faith, reason, and imagination capable of pulling all three together in an intelligible and remarkable manner to reach not only fellow believers, but those searching for a reason for life.

I learned my senior year that Lewis was a Christian convert from atheism, thanks to a well written report of a fellow classmate.  What I did not know is all that led up to that conversion. I stumbled upon an article online that gave a bit more information about Lewis’ decision to consider God. In this article, Robert Stewart quotes from Lewis’ book Surprised by Joy, saying that a comment from T.D. Weldon, a well-established atheist at the time, caused Lewis to second guess his stance on the unbelievability of the Christian story of a dying man. This comment paired with his own desire to read medieval literature in search of a “unified cosmic and world order” (McGrath, 2013, p. 135) started Lewis down a path that would ultimately lead to his salvation. As McGrath points out, Lewis’ relationship with J.R.R. Tolkien further led Lewis toward Christ. A pivotal comment came from Tolkien just after Lewis had moved from atheism to theism, but prior to his conversion to Christianity. Tolkien essentially told Lewis to not limit his imagination, to allow his reason and his imagination to both have free reign in his search for understanding of God (McGrath, p.149). C.S. Lewis discovered that “when rightly understood, the Christian faith could integrate reason, longing, and imagination” (McGrath, p. 151).

C.S. Lewis strikes me as the type of man capable of seeing the big picture.  His ability to see the big picture and not get bogged down in the small details enables him to encourage others in the pursuits and help them move forward and achieve an end goal. He is described by his friends as a great encourager (McGrath, p. 199), so much so that he was not only willing to be that encourager but dedicated to being one as well (McGrath, p. 200).  Some people have a natural tendency towards encouraging, others are given this great ability when they become a Christian (Romans 12:6-8), and all Christians are called to encourage one another in our walk with Christ (Hebrews 3:13).  I get the impression, from the quotes of friends and the biographer, that C.S. Lewis fell into all three of these categories. I had not previously known this about him, but it fits with the way he tells the stories I am so fond of.

Another aspect of the man C.S. Lewis that I had not previously known or understood was his main goal in his writing. He was not a theologian or a pastor of any kind. The analogy that he gives in his preface to Mere Christianity of the hallway provided a clear visual for how he saw his writings (p. xv-xvi). He saw his writings as the introduction to the basics of Christianity, the core of what holds us all together as one body of believers. The virtually indisputable aspects of our faith that truly defines what it is to be Christian.

Moving forward in our reading, this will all be incredibly helpful information to have.  To understand as I read that Lewis is not trying to convert anyone to the Church of England, or make any profound statements or insights into the Bible; but that he simply wants to inform others of what Christianity is and why it’s not only a plausible explanation for so many of life’s questions but is the only reasonable solution. With his skill with the written and spoken word, C.S. Lewis manages to incorporate faith, reason, and imagination into all of his fiction and non-fiction works showing that religion can encompass all three, that none need be excluded.

References

Lewis, C.S. (2015). Mere Christianity. New York: HarperCollins.

McGrath, A. (2013). C. S. Lewis: a life – eccentric genius, reluctant prophet. Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House.

Stewart, R. B. (n.d.). C.S. Lewis’ journey to faith. Retrieved from http://www1.cbn.com

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Praying for Girls by Teri Lynne Underwood

Praying for Girls by Teri Lynne Underwoodpraying-for-girls-cover

“Enjoy the peace that comes when you pray targeted prayers…straight from the Bible.”

This is a must have book for every parent or mentor to girls of all ages! I chose to volunteer to review this book in advance of its release because I have three daughters spanning high school, middle school, and elementary. What an amazing find!

Teri reminds us that as moms we “have the privilege and responsibility of encouraging our daughters to view life through the Word of God” and that “deep inside, we pray for [our daughters] because we know they don’t have perfect moms.”

Teri has written Praying for Girls in a light, conversational tone that makes it easy to read and connect with. The layout of the book is simple and designed to be a resource to grab as needed and reference frequently.  You do not have to read it cover to cover.  Packed with scripture, Praying for Girls empowers the reader with friendly information on each topic, and equips them with ideas on how to pray scriptures and connect with their girl(s).

While the clear audience of this book is mothers, it could easily be used by anyone who is mentoring girls or knows a girl they want to pray for.  I know I plan on using it to pray not only for my three daughters, but also my nieces, my daughter’s friends, and neighbor girls. It can also be a great resource for any mom and daughter group, or for mother-daughter tea parties!

As Max Lucado once pointed out, “Our prayers may be awkward. Our attempts may be feeble. But since the power of prayer is in the one who hears it and not in the one who says it, our prayers do make a difference (emphasis mine).”

Praying for Girls will equip you to pray with confidence, scripture over your girl.

Connect with Teri at http://prayersforgirls.com/

Purchase Praying for Girls on Christian Book Distributors Amazon

 

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Teens and Summer Jobs

Help WantedI read an article recently promoting the great benefits of having your teens work summer jobs.  It encourages financial responsibility, makes for responsible adults, encourages a strong work ethic, keeps them from becoming bored, and many other great benefits.

I thought about all of these great things, and seriously contemplated having my teenage daughter go out and get her first job.  Then I thought about all of the opportunities she and our family would lose out on if she did.

For starters, she wouldn’t be able to volunteer with Christian Youth In Action and teach at five day clubs all over our state.  She wouldn’t be able to go to Summit Camp for a week, or be a counselor at Camp Good News during another full week.  She also wouldn’t be able to go to a four day cheer camp for her high school cheerleading this next year.

Of course, she could just get a weekend job since all of these camps and activities are Monday through Friday.  But then, she and our family would lose out on all of our fun family trips and activities that we enjoy doing every summer. It could potentially cause her to burn out as well, not having a single day of rest.  The bible is very clear on the importance of having one day of rest every week.

I have decided that encouraging my daughter to get a summer job would be detrimental to her life at this time. She is not sitting at home all summer, bored with nothing to do.  She is serving her community, and more importantly, she is serving God. Having a more relaxed summer enables her to enjoy a more hectic schedule during the school year.  It is healthy for our entire family, and besides – she will have to work at a paying job for probably 52 years of her life.  I am going to let her enjoy her summers to their fullest while she can.

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Biblical – It’s the Only Way

“See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ” (Colossians 2:8, NIV). Dr. James Sire, defines a worldview as “the fundamental perspective from which one addresses every issue of life” (2015), and Dr. Del Tackett further defines a biblical worldview as being “based on the infallible Word of God” (n.d.). “The Bible is, on the whole, a narrative through which God gives us the Truth about Himself, humanity and the world” (Phillips, Brown & Stonestreet, 2008). Being a Christian, it is most reasonable to me to depend on the Bible, as the Word of God, to define my view of the world.

There is one God, creator of the heavens and the Earth (Genesis 1). He is all-powerful (Jeremiah 32:17) and “the heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands” (Psalm 19:1). David writes in the 139th Psalm of how God is everywhere, we cannot escape God’s presence. God is sovereign, “His dominion is an eternal dominon; his kingdom endures from generation to generation. All the peoples of the earth are regarded as nothing. He does as he pleases with the power of heaven and the peoples of the earth. No one can hold back his hand or say to him: ‘What have you done?’” (Daniel 4:34b-35). God is consistent and never changes (Malachi 3:6a).  I believe in the trinity, that God is one God but in three persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit. I believe in Jesus Christ as the only son of God, born of a virgin, who lived a sinless life, who died on a cross, was buried, and rose from the grave three days later that through Him we might be saved. God is God.  He is reliable in who He says He is. He can be trusted.

Genesis 1:1-2 and Psalm 33:6 testify that all of creation came from the breath of God, through His spoken word all of creation came to be. There once was nothing, and from nothing God made everything. I believe in the literal interpretation of Genesis chapter 1, that all of creation was made in six days and on the seventh day God rested. God created man out of the dust of the earth and gave him breath by His breath, and that woman was created to be a helpmeet to man formed from man’s rib (Genesis 1:27, 2:22). Ephesians 2:10 tells us that “we are God’s workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do.” God created us for purpose, and that purpose is to love, serve, and worship God. Knowing my purpose gives me direction in life, it orients me and allows me to better decide what actions I should take. Knowing that all of Creation was deemed good by God, and that we were placed here to tend it, makes me thoughtful of how I take care of my environment. It is for my use, but I should not neglect it.

I believe that when we die we immediately face the judgement of the Lord (Hebrews 9:27), the result of that judgement is either Heaven or Hell. There are no second chances after you die, the decisions you make this side of death will determine where you spend eternity. Jesus says, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me” (John 14:6) and earlier He tells Martha, “I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies” (John 11:25). Romans 10:9-10 tells us “That if you confess with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you confess and are saved.” I take seriously the great commission to “go and make disciples of all nations” (Matthew 28:19a), as every person’s eternal life in heaven depends upon them hearing of Christ and choosing for themselves whom they will serve.

Knowledge comes from God. The entire book of Proverbs speaks to God’s wisdom and knowledge. Proverbs 2:6 specifically says, “For the Lord gives wisdom, and from his mouth come knowledge and understanding.” Proverbs 1:7 says that “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and discipline.” To fear the Lord is not a scared kind of fear, but an awesome kind of fear. It means to be in awe of God and all that He is. To stand in awe of God is the beginning of all wisdom and knowledge. James 1:5 is a verse I claim readily as I parent my children, and serve God in my marriage: “If any of you lacks wisdom, he should ask God, who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to him.” I can testify that asking God for wisdom in any situation only makes things better, never worse. God is faithful, and very wise.

Morality and ethics are best defined by the creator of life, the creator of all things. It is by His law that we are judged, and therefore it is by His law we should live our lives (Psalm 119:9). The bible is full of guidelines for living, the most prevalent of all is the command of Christ to “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind” and to “love your neighbor as yourself” (Matthew 22:37,39). Paul’s admonition in his letter to Titus saying, “our people must learn to devote themselves to doing what is good, in order that they may provide for daily necessities and not live unproductive lives” (Titus 3:14) is a good one to heed: Do good!

I believe that the meaning of the history of mankind and the world is ultimately God’s story of creation, the fall, and redemption. The story of the world is not my story to tell, it is very short. Rather, I believe that the meaning of history is to understand God’s story. It is through the study of history that we continue to better understand all that God has done for us. We are bound to repeat history if we do not learn from it and keep our eyes focused on God. History is the story of creation, man’s fall from grace, and God’s merciful redemption through Jesus Christ.

Dr. Del Tackett points out that “it is our decisions and actions that reveal what we really believe,” (n.d.). James admonishes us to “not merely listen to the word, and so deceive [our]selves. Do what it says” (James 1:22) and that “faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by action, is dead” (James 2:17). Our actions do indeed speak louder than our words. As I continue through life, and my worldview continues to be more specifically defined I pray that I will continue to keep in mind Romans 12:2, “Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is – his good pleasing and perfect will.”

References

Phillips, W. G., Brown, W. E. & Stonestreet, J. (2008). Making sense of your world: a biblical worldview. Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company.

Sire, J. W. (2015). Naming the elephant: worldview as a concept. Downers Grove, IL: Inter Varsity Press.

Tackett, D. (n.d.). What’s in a worldview? Retrieved from www.focusonthefamily.com

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I Do Believe

What are my views on the existence or non-existence of God? That is a question that requires a bit of a back story, so bear with me through to the very end please. You see, I was raised in a family that had an absolute belief in God. Some would call it brainwashing, and they may be right to an extent; but, in every culture you will find what one believes is generally passed on in a generational sense (Phillips, Brown, & Street, 2008, pg. 15) and so everyone is brainwashed in one sense or another from birth. This following in my ancestor’s beliefs went unquestioned until somewhere around my early teenage years.

It was around the age of thirteen that a classmate asked me why I believed in God. I simply answered because I do. I had never thought of why I believed, I simply believed. The question continued to tug at me all year. That summer I decided to sit down and figure out exactly what I believed and why I believed it. Finding it a little difficult to define exactly what it was that I did believe – outside the basic tenets of my faith – I decided to start with the easier concept of figuring out what I didn’t believe and go from there (Phillips et al., pg. 2).

I decided that I didn’t believe in the big bang theory or in evolution because following either theory to its logical beginning or end made it obviously illogical, at least to me. How could something with no reason or purpose—big bang theory—create something so perfect and logical like our planet located in our solar system? It can’t. The world and everything in it is too perfectly aligned to be happenstance. Evolution—we had just studied the human body in science that year and I knew how detailed the body was.  There was no possible way any creature, let alone a human, could have evolved from anything. Sure, we may adapt to our surroundings, but we don’t evolve into different species. But thinking of the bible stories I grew up with – now these made sense logically. I mean, if God existed then it would make perfect sense that He—being all powerful—could just speak and creation in perfect order would just exist. But this brought me to an interesting thought and the question that started it all… if God existed.

So why did I believe that God existed?  Well, because the bible told me so, that’s why. So why did I believe the bible to be true? Is it true? Is only part of it true? I decided that the bible either had to be all true, or all false because if you tell a half-truth it’s a full lie. So, either the bible had to be all true or it was all lies. I started doing some reading on the bible and found that there were a lot of people who nit-picked the bible and said that it wasn’t reliable because of so many translations and the lack of original manuscripts from which to compare for accuracy. This argument made sense, but then I found that the writings of Plato and Aristotle are taken as fact, and the earliest translations of their writing have no known originals and are dated hundreds of years after they died: whereas, the bible had writings dating from a mere 80 years after the death of Christ for sections of the new testament. Surely the bible was more reliable than these other texts.

I spent the entirety of my eighth-grade year reading through the bible and taking notes looking for any inconsistency, anything that would jump out to me as contradictory. Some things, like the two genealogies of Christ in the gospels made me ponder on my own. But further research helped me understand that one was the legal genealogy through Joseph while the other was through his ancestral genealogy through Mary. The key was that prophecy was fulfilled regardless of which genealogy was followed. After much research, I determined that for me the bible was true. Deciding that the bible was true made answering every other question much easier.

I understand the premise behind scholars, like Nietzsche, who believe that the idea that God is dead because the concept of God is no longer evident in the lives of the people who say they believe in him (Sire, 2015, pg. 28). I have found that this problem of saying that you believe and then not showing it is a problem that spans centuries. You see, James, a brother of Jesus and author of one of the books in the bible, tells believers that they need to not just hear what Jesus had to say but they needed to actually do it (James 1:22). Furthermore, James tells his listeners that their faith will be evident by what they do, not merely by what they say (James 2:17,22). So, to say that God, or the concept of God, is dead, is irrelevant. You will always find people of all beliefs say one thing and do another.

A friend once told me that I believe in God because it gives me hope, it makes life easier, and it makes me feel good about all the good stuff that I do. I quietly pointed out to her that I wasn’t sure how being ridiculed for my belief made life easier, when it would really be easier to not believe and go with the crowd of unbelievers around me. I didn’t see how it would make me feel good for doing good, when doing good just got me snubbed for being a “goody-two-shoes” and the bible teaches there are no rewards in heaven. Or how believing in God would give me hope—I mean in regard to an afterlife of any kind, if she were right then we’d all just die and cease to exist, there’s nothing to fear. So, to believe that there isn’t a God wouldn’t eliminate any hope, and to believe that there is a God doesn’t give any false hope. Believing in God simply answers many questions in life. Believing in God defines who I am, how I live, and what I do with my life.

I do believe in God. Because it is the most logical and reasonable conclusion when one evaluates all the resources we have.

 

References

Phillips, W. G., Brown, W. E. & Stonestreet, J. (2008). Making sense of your world: a biblical worldview. Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company.

Sire, J. W. (2015). Naming the elephant: worldview as a concept. Downers Grove, IL: Inter Varsity Press.

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Parenting God’s Way

“Parents can only give good advice or put [kids] on the right paths, but the final forming of a person’s character lies in their own hands” (Anne Frank, 1944). In some ways, Anne Frank agreed with Judith Harris’ view that parents are not to blame for how their child grows up. In her interview, Judith Harris explains her belief that a child’s peers have more influence than the parent in regards to the way a child turns out as an adult and as such, parents should not be held responsible or take responsibility for how well or poor their child does as an adult (Harris, 2010). This view, to the degree which Harris takes it, is contrary to the Christian faith that commands parents to train their children and admonishes children to heed their parents’ instruction.

Harris’ view that peers are more influential than parents is partially supported by psychological research. Myers and Dewall support the premise that peers are influential when they say that “youngsters may find their peers more interesting” but ultimately share their view that youth “will look to their parents when contemplating their own futures” (Myers & Dewall, 2015, pg. 155). Another aspect of Harris’ view is that children will be what their genes have predetermined they will be, that our biology is in more control than anything else. Reifman and Cleveland, as cited by Myers and Dewall, state that “the genetic leash may limit the family environment’s influence on personality, but…parents do influence their children’s attitudes, values, manners, politics, and faith” (pg. 139). Harris’ view is faulty in that it seeks to remove any influence of the parent on the child in the process of child rearing.

During her interview, Harris suggests that the cause of mass school shootings is not the result of bad parenting, but rather a result of the student having faced rejection from their peers at school. She believes that the student would have committed the atrocity regardless of how loving and supportive a home they had. I would disagree in that if the student felt acceptance somewhere, they would be better equipped to handle rejection elsewhere. No one can be accepted everywhere and by everyone. What makes the rejection endurable is being able to go to that place which we are accepted. It is the parent’s duty to ensure that the home is, at the very least, this place for their child. It is the parent’s duty to help their child find that place outside the home where they will be accepted for who God has made them to be. This isn’t to negate the influence that mass rejection can have, but rather lessen the impact and allow room for God to move.

Parents were not made to sit idly by and allow their child to grow on their own providing only their basic needs for survival. Indeed, Proverbs 29:15 admonishes parents that “the rod of correction imparts wisdom, but a child left to himself disgraces his mother” (New International Version). A parent’s responsibility is to “train a child in the way he should go, [so] when he is old he will not depart from it” (Proverbs 22:6). Training and correction are processes that require a parent to be actively engaged with their child. It is a form of molding and shaping that takes place in a loving environment. Fathers are admonished in Ephesians and in Colossians not to exasperate or embitter their children (Ephesians 6:4, Colossians 3:21), but to encourage them and teach them of the ways of the Lord (Deuteronomy 6:7, 11:19). While Harris is correct when she says that we cannot mold our children exactly the way we want them, she is wrong that we are not able to mold them at all. These verses show that God has high expectations for parents to be involved in their children’s lives and in their character training.

Peer influence is a real thing, and parents can be responsible to help their child choose peers that will support the guidance of their parents. A parent has a lot of control over a child’s environment and as such has a lot of control over the way that child will be raised. Particularly in America where we have multiple schooling options, churches to choose from, and extracurricular activities to be involved in. While it is good to remember that parents are not entirely responsible for their children’s actions and behavior, particularly as adults, it should not serve as an excuse to take no responsibility for the kind of adult your child turns into. As our children discover who they are separate from their parents, they may drift from where we think and hope they would be, but with God’s grace they will return to what they have been taught. As parents, all we can do is follow the example God lays out for us in His many interactions with the children of Israel: love our children unconditionally, guide them in the ways they should go, and be willing to let them make mistakes and thus gain wisdom.

References

Frank, A. (n.d.). Anne Frank quotes. Retrieved from www.annefrankonline.com

Harris, J. [007IceWeasel]. (2010, January 7). Do parents matter? Peer influence [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPol_GTequY

Myers, D. G. & Dewall, C. N. (2015). Psychology, eleventh edition. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

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Alcoholism, Alcoholics, and the Church

Alcoholism, Alcoholics, and the Church

Society has a great deal of influence on members’ behaviors and thoughts. Proverbs 13:20 reminds us of how influential others are when it says that “he who walks with the wise grows wise, but a companion of fools suffers harm” (NIV). Humans are emotional people and as such we are more readily influenced when we can make a connection with another person. As shared by Dr. Laura Williamson (2012) in her journal article Destigmatizing alcohol dependence, “negative attitudes toward the condition are partly related to the social costs it produces and harms it inflicts on third parties” (para.14). As such, a mother who recently lost her child due to a drunk driver is easier to connect with than a psychologist attempting to explain alcoholics have a mental illness called an addiction that they do not have complete control over.

Within each culture there are some addictions that appear to be deemed permissible, while others are not. In the United States, having an addiction to soda, coffee, social media, or in some cases pornography, seem to be okay. While addictions to alcohol, illicit drugs, pain medications, or child pornography is not okay. This determination between which addiction is and is not acceptable could be attributed to the attribution theory.

Attribution theory states that beliefs about the cause and controllability of an individual’s illness lead to inferences about responsibility…attributions of responsibility then lead to emotions such as anger or pity that influence motivations to punish or assist stigmatized individuals (Switzer & Boysen, 2009, para. 1).

It appears that those addictions which affect the person who is addicted and no one else is considered okay; whereas, those addictions which directly or indirectly affect others are not okay.

Through this brief study of alcoholism and addiction, my personal views on the subject have shifted slightly. I have a better understanding of how various addictions come to be and how they affect our brains. Doctors Myers and Dewall (2015) point out that our brains are able to maintain a chemical balance and when outside chemicals disrupt that balance on a regular basis then our brains stop producing whatever chemical is being artificially introduced (Psychology, pg. 58-59) and that it is theorized that people may be genetically predisposed to addiction as a result of having a reward deficiency syndrome (pg. 73). This information suggests that my prior belief that addicts were in complete control of their choice to become addicts is at least partially faulty. I still believe that the majority of addicts, at some point, had the will power and the choice to not become an addict and instead chose to pursue their addiction. Dr. Jean Kilbourne supports this thought when she said that “addiction begins with the hope that something ‘out there’ can instantly fill up the emptiness inside.”  Addiction, in most cases, is different than other diseases in that the addict chose their disease and deliberately fed it instead of the disease choosing them, as is the case in most cancers and other illnesses.

When we have a dependency or addiction it becomes our highest priority. Our lives revolve around that which we are addicted to or dependent upon. The Psalmist David tells us in Psalm 62 that we should depend on God and on God alone. Addictions are sin because they cause us to be dependent on something other than God. It pulls our focus off God. In this light an addict’s addiction is no worse than another person lying to their parent or not keeping the Sabbath day holy. All sin is equal in God’s eyes. Christians should respond to a person with an addiction, regardless of the cause, with compassion.

Therefore, as God’s chosen people, holy and dearly loved, clothe yourselves with compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience. Bear with each other and forgive whatever grievances you may have against one another. Forgive as the Lord forgave you. And over all these virtues put on love, which binds them all together in perfect unity. (Colossians 3:12-14)

Alcoholism is an illness that can be cured with help and a good support system. The church can be that support system. When Dr. Kilbourne mentioned the addicts’ need to fill an emptiness, Christians can direct them to the One who can fill that emptiness and empower them to overcome. The stigma of an alcoholic being an irresponsible and uncontrollable individual needs to be removed. The stigma of an alcoholic being an individual who made some bad choices and needs help overcoming the results should remain. We are all sinners in need of help. We can all overcome – together.

 

 

References

Boysen. G. A. & Switzer, B. (2009). The impact of religiosity and attribution theory on attitudes toward addiction and cancer. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12(3). Retrieved fromhttp://ezproxy.ccu.edu:2073/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=5&sid=21a49235-c591-479c-9e7b-c4e4059f11b6%40sessionmgr102

Kilbourne, J. Retrieved from http://quotecatalog.com/quote/jean-kilbourne-addiction-begin-vpZD5q1

Myers, D. G. & Dewall, C. N. (2015). Psychology, eleventh edition. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Williamson, L. (2012). Destigmatizing alcohol dependence: The requirement for an ethical (not only medical) remedy. American Journal of Public Health, 102(5). Retrieved from http://ezproxy.ccu.edu:2053/docview/1009903832?accountid=10200

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